Argentina, officially recognized as the Argentine Republic, is a South American country with a capitol named Buenos Aires. Within Latin America, the country of Argentina is second in size next to Brazil and fourth in population behind Brazil, Mexico, and Colombia. This large land covers more than 1 million square miles (2.7 million square kilometers). It is located in the southern part of South America, just east of the Andes Mountains. It ranges from the Tropic of Capricorn down south to the tip of the continent within 700 miles (1,100 kilometers) of the continent of Antarctica. Argentina claims a section of that continent, as well as the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and several other islands off the coast of South America. Chile borders the country on the west and south, while Bolivia and Paraguay lies to the north. Brazil, Uruguay, and the Atlantic Ocean are located east of Argentina.
The official language of Argentina is Spanish, with more than 90 percent of the population being of Roman Catholic faith. Spanish colonists, along with those from other regions of South America, settled the country from the 16th century on through the 18th century. Immigrants from European countries like
According to the constitution, the legislature, known as the Argentine National Congress, is to consist of two houses, the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Federal court jurisdiction includes those cases that involve the constitution, as well as the laws and treaties of the nation. Many gauchos were people of mixed Spanish and black origin who had crossed the border from Brazil to escape enslavement. As mentioned before, about 90 of the population is Roman Catholic. This condition has been complicated, as mentioned before, by an unstable government and continuing domestic and international political difficulties. Agriculture, based mostly on grain and livestock, became the dominant component in the Argentine economy. In regards to international affairs, Argentina is a member of the United Nations, the World Bank, and the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade. The constitution states that the executive branch be headed by a president, who is elected directly by the people for a term of four years. Argentina has one of South America's lowest population growth rates (1. This doctrine established Argentina as a federal republic with its own separate executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The Jewish population, while only including about 2 of the people, is the largest of all Latin American countries and the fifth largest in the world. Now, mestizo and indigenous peoples make up about only 15 of Argentina's population. The largest quantity of imports comes from the United States. Unlike many of its neighboring countries, Argentina has developed a powerful manufacturing industry and has become less reliant on farming and agriculture. The nine justices of the Supreme Court are appointed a term for life and are elected only by the president, with the consent of the Senate.