There are several different names for butane which includes normal butane, butyl hydride, LPG (liquified petroleum gas), UN 1011, C4H10, MAT15370, and RTECS EJ4200000. Butane is in the chemical family of hydrocarbons and aliphatic.
Butane is a colorless and flammable gas with a very unpleasant odor, is found in natural gas, light crude oil, and gases formed when heavy oil is cracked or broken down chemically to produce gasoline. Butane, either of two saturated hydrocarbons, or alkanes, with the chemical formula C4H10 liquefies under pressure at ordinary temperatures. In both compounds the carbon atoms are joined in an open chain. In n-butane (normal), the chain is continuous and unbranched whereas in i-butane (iso) one of the carbon atoms forms a side branch. This difference in structure results in small but distinct differences in properties.
In the butane molecule, there were four groups around the central atom. The electronic geometry was a tetrahedral and the molecular geometry was bent. The bond angles around each central atom were 109.5°.
Butane is a non-polar molecule, which means there is no dipolemoment.
As stated in the description, there are two structural isomers of butane which will be discussed in usages. Mixtures of liquefied butane are called LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), a fuel used in industry, trucks, and homes in isolated areas. Butanes are also added to gasoline to increase its volatility (evaporation rate) in cold climates. Isobutane, a form of butane, is used to make high-octane gasolines. However, n-butane is converted to butadiene, which is used to make synthetic rubber and latex paints. Both butanes occur in natural gas, petroleum, and refinery gases. They make up the most volatile portion of gasoline and are sometimes added to propane to be marketed as bottled gas.