First Generation Languages.
These languages were written in machine language, the semantics of these languages is very far from that of natural languages utilized by humans (no concessions are made for human frailties), hence making these first generation languages very esoteric to understand and write. As a result the programs were almost impossible to maintain because they were so prone to errors and when these errors surfaced, which was an extremely frequent occurrence. The errors were more difficult to track and correct than writing the program itself. Simple programs took extremely long periods of time to code, programs created and machine languages were not very portable, meaning they were extremely hardware dependant. Programmers needed a great deal of skill and specialized training, this made finding such programmers very difficult and the cost of hiring them astronomic. Because mainly scientist and engineers used the system, projects were mostly military sponsored, monitor screens were monochromatic and only command driven interfaces were available these systems were not very usable to the average man, however these languages suited their era in that, early computers ran vacuum tube technology and hardware design was in
The user still has to know a little about the hardware, operations and limitations, however knowledge requirements and limitations are significantly less (in comparison to 1st and 2nd GL) allowing the programmer to focus on the problem at hand rather than on the low level system details. These languages are standardized by the ANSI (American National Standard Institute) and ISO ( International Standard Organization). Imagine the programmer how much easier debugging would be now since you produce meaningful documentation while coding; this documentation is vital in understanding the system to trace errors. 2: These languages utilized English like commands making them easier to understand. Another plus for these languages is that they were already in a form that the computer could understand (e. Applications created with fourth generation languages are said to be more reliable and maintainable, this is because objects encapsulate both local and data procedures and also the additional properties of generic (or class) objects and instances, polymorphism, and inheritance by subclasses. Code is necessary, for example if you wish to show the workers who receive ten dollars per hour, in Microsoft Access you need to type in " 10"tm in the correct field. A wide range of third generation languages are available to suit the many diverse needs of companies in existence(they are very problem oriented) for example FORTRAN FORmula TRANslation : This programming language has been designed for engineering and mathematical operations, it contains several useful functions and it allows the user to easily define mathematical relationships between variables. COBOL: (COmmon Business Oriented Language) was developed for use in the business community. These programs created in fourth generation languages sometimes have limited functionality because the user is unable to tailor the program to depth required; this is sometimes reflected in poor multi user functionality and vulnerable security features. In these algorithmic languages the programmer must list each instruction and the order in which they are to be executed is some predefined logical format that can be understood by a program called a compiler. Logical control structures include Sequence: The order in which commands are to be executed. 3: One line of a third generation programming language can correspond to many lines of second or first generation language; as a result training software engineers is less burdensome as lines of code soon become self explanatory.