Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes Mellitus is a disorder caused by decreased production of insulin, or by decreased ability to use insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body's tissues absorbs glucose (sugar) so it can be used as a source of energy. Insulin is necessary for blood glucose to go from the blood to the inside of the cells, and unless the sugar gets into the cells, the body cannot use it. Glucose levels build up in the blood and urine, causing excessive urination, thirst, and hunger. Diabetes occurs in several forms. The most common types are Type I, Type II, and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Type I Diabetes is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or IDDM. In Type I diabetes the body's own immune system attacks the insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. The pancreas then produces little or no insulin. A person who has Type I diabetes must take insulin daily to live (webmd). This type of diabetes usually occurs in people under the age of 30, however could occur at any age (Thomas 528). Type I diabetes has also been referred to as Juvenile Diabetes. Approximately 40 in every 10,000 children have diabetes (89). Children often manifest the disease suddenly. Symptoms inclu
A person can also become ill if blood glucose levels rise too high, a condition known as hyperglycemia (Thomas 527). Although, some patient are prescribed diabetic medications, which helps the body respond more effectively to the body"tms own natural insulin (webmd). Early medical assessment is needed so that appropriate treatment can be started with the diabetic child. Symptoms usually include tiredness and excessive thirst. Most diabetics only test blood sugar twice a day, once before breakfast and at bedtime. Such as, blindness, heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, nerve damage and limb amputations (webmd). Symptoms may include fatigue or nausea, frequent urination, unusual thirst, weight loss, blurred vision, frequent infections, and slow healing wounds or sores. Currently, there is no cure for any type of diabetes. For example, the baby may have a low blood sugar level or jaundice, or the baby may be very large (familydoctor). Type II diabetes usually occurs in obese adults over the age of 40 (Holms 270). Diabetes alone affects over 60 million Americans and one in four of them will develop Type II diabetes. Current forms of insulin replacement include mixed-dose, split mixed-dose, and multiple daily injection regiments and continued subcutaneous insulin infusions (Holms 270). A person with Type I diabetes can lapse into a life-threatening diabetic coma, also known as diabetic ketoacidasis if not diagnosed and treated with insulin. Some monitors only require a sample of blood the size of a pinhead and can be tested on the forearm, upper arm, thigh, calf, hand, and fingers.
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