While economic liberalization can do a lot of good to a nation, it must be supplemented by a range of devices by which the state can promote human development.
Nations have to move well beyond economic liberalization and must adapt and extend the language of economics in order to think more adequately about human development. Without adequate social development like literacy, health, women’s education and social security there can be no meaning in economic expansion if economic growth has to serve society. Globalization and liberalization are good ideas but need to be supplemented with public action to enhance human capabilities. This means investing in education, health and gender empowerment. India launched a drive for economic liberalization in 1991 after years of disastrous socialist and centralized planning, but the question arises whether the country has taken care of its needs in human development and poverty alleviation.
This paper discusses these questions, and analyzes how economic liberalization alone is not sufficient for a nation's welfare. The necessities of planning and implementing programs from a human development perspective are outlined.
India is doing very well econ
Shiva 1996In his book "India: Economic Development and Social Opportunity" Professor Sen, gives a scathing portrayal of the performance of many developing countries, including India, in human development index parameters - such as health-care, nutrition, safe drinking water and primary education. For expanding social opportunities, state need to play a more proactive role in the same manner as it has shown dynamism in reducing controls, liberalizing the economy and opening up the economy. The priority has to shift to basic education, to health care and to assuring basic economic security and livelihoods. Neither its reality nor its irreversibility can be questioned. This will mean a dramatic enhancement of the focus on basic education, health, women's empowerment and related areas, and enabling the vast majority of the population to improve its quality of life. This inertia, too, contributes to the persistence of widespread deprivation, economic stagnation, and social inequality". However, there is no question of its joining the "league of developed nations" unless there is decisive action to transform social conditions and expand social opportunities. On the other hand, the state's efforts at making primary education compulsory, abolishing child labor and until recently, addressing the problem of AIDS need to be stepped up. While some changes have also taken place in the social sphere with affirmative action for disadvantaged communities and with women enjoying by and large more freedoms than ever before, India's performance from a human development perspective has been a mixed one. There is still much ground to cover in terms of ending human deprivations. But, there is another aspect of globalization - its impact on humanity. Sen has said that economic liberalization and globalization can help only if nations put in place strong safeguards in the sectors such as education, health and housing and other human development areas. , 2002Amartya Sen and Jean Dreze in another of their books "India -- Development Participation" emphasize that economic reforms need to be adequately broad based to ensure social justice and provision of social opportunities.