african american civil rights

             During the 1950's and 1960's the black civil rights movement exploded. Protest and rallies to demonstrate for more civil rights among the African American community flocked everywhere. The Supreme Court ultimately ruled the decisions for more civil liberties through cases brought to the court. The most influential court case was Brown v. Board of Education which declared segregated school unconstitutional. Thurgood Marshall, a predominant black lawyer won many Supreme Court cases in the 1950's including Smith v. Allright and Shelley v Kraemer. These cases were unanimously voted in favor of black civil liberties.
             The Supreme Court decision in favor of Brown v Board of Education in 1954 ruled segregated school were unequal. This decision ruled out the Plessy v Ferguson decision in 1896 which made "separate but equal" facilities legal. Thurgood Marshall was a well educated black lawyer of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). His association aimed to fight racial segregation throughout the United States, and took on many cases of black civil rights with the Supreme Court. Marshall won almost all of the cases he argued before the Supreme Court. In Chambers v. Florida (1940) he persuaded the Supreme Court to overturn a criminal conviction based on a coerced confession. In Smith v. Allwright (1944) Marshall was able to persuade the court to rule out a Texas practice known as the "white primary," which didn't allow blacks from participating in primary elections. In Shelley v. Kraemer (1948) Marshall won the case which stated that courts could not enforce "restrictive covenants," private agreements not to sell land to blacks. In Sipuel v. University of Oklahoma (1948) and Sweatt v. Painter (1950) the Supreme Court ruled unanimous decisions forcing the universities of Oklahoma and Texas to integrate their law schools.
             The Civil Rights Act passed by Congress

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