Length: 8 Pages 2096 Words

Section A 1. What is language (sounds, symbols, a complex system, speech and writing) Language defined in simplest terms is a system of communication using vocal symbols. Although its origin will never be fully known the oldest written symbolic language known is only 7,900 years at most. Spoken language is believed to have been developed long before that. Linguists divide the study of spoken language into two categories, phonology and grammar. Phonology is the study of sounds. Grammar is how the sounds are used to make sense. (Dalby, 1999) Human language is a symbolic communication system that is learned, rather then an inherited trait, such as barking. Symbols in the form of sounds have been arbitrarily assigned meanings. For instance, the English word "rock" does not in any way physically resemble the object it stands for. All symbols have a material form but the meaning cannot be revealed by simple sensory inspection of their forms, they are abstractions. Speech and language is not the same thing. Speech is a term that refers to patterns of verbal behavior. The rules of how the symbolic sounds, (words), are spoken in order to communicate meaning constitutes a language. Language is the set of Continue...

The word "queer" for example has come to be a somewhat derogatory designation for, generally, males who are homosexual. In the Mandarin form of Chinese the word "su" can have six different meanings, depending on the tone change. For example, when a child tells his mother that Daddy took him: First we went to a gasser then we went to an eater The mother and the father when hearing their son's description of stopping at a gas station then a diner will probably produce laughter, a positive sign as far as the kid is concerned. If that same person attempts to communicate with his peers in that environment with the form of language used by the dominant culture, (proper English instead of Ebonics for example), he may find himself ostracized and shunned by those in his community. Word's meanings can change over time, as can what constitutes proper or improper use of words, (grammar). This again reinforces what the child is learning. Thus, the more academically sophisticated a students native language knowledge and abilities are, the easier it will be to learn a second language. Cockney rhyming in fact is a language almost unto itself, where ideas are expressed using words and phrases that to a causual listener from America have nothing to do with one another. If a child states that "Johnny hitted me," she is expressing an action and an idea based on what she understands about the use of her language. They range from millions of people speaking the same language all the way down to a few dozen or less. In the first phase of language acquisition children are learning rudimentary words, sentence structure and phrases. Language Varieties (historical, geographical and social dialect; register: age, sex, status, role; topic, medium, style) Different languages have developed world wide because of many contributing factors such as the role historical interactions between cultures have played. Each of these guidelines should contain the following parts: List of objectives considered appropriate for learners of that stage in relation to the aspect of communicative competence in focus A list of strategies the learner can use to achieve these objectives A list of language learning techniques to implement the strategies A list of language learning activities to implement the strategies (Source: http:www. In more formal ways control through language can be one of verbal or written orders commanding individuals or groups to perform a function or complete a task.