Society and Population

Length: 2 Pages 576 Words

In the history of human societal development, the relationship between society and population are important elements that determine the development or stagnation of a society towards progress. It is chronicled in history that the emergence of the Industrial Revolution gave birth to population growth, as well as different movements that improved economic and social progress in human civilization. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, the study of population growth with respect to society is illustrated in Thomas Malthus' theory of population, discussed in his famous discourse in 1798, An Essay on the Principle of Population. In his theory of population, Malthus discussed how an increase in population could result to a decrease in the food supply. For Malthus, this would happen because population rate increases at a geometric rate whil Continue...

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e food supplyincrease only at an arithmetic rate. Modern theories on demographic transition adds another stage inthe process, identified as the fourth, or post-industrial stage, wherebirth rate is equal to the death rate, which means that there is already azero population growth. This means that as populationincreases, food supply (economic resources) decrease and it would not beable to support the growing demand of the increasing number of people. , birth and deathrates) are balanced or in equilibrium. Fertility ratesare associated with birth rates, contributing to an increase in populationgrowth, while epidemiological rates are associated with eventual increasein death rates, decreasing the rate of population growth. Notestein identifies countries belonging to the pre-industrial stage asstage 1 countries, those societies in the transitional stage as stage 2countries, and so on. Thus, developed countries have lower birthand death rates compared with developing countries, which have higher birthand death rates. Developing countries are categorized under the stage2 or transitional stage, mainly because there are both increasing rates ofbirth and death in developing societies. The second stage (transitional stage) has greater birth ratesand lower death rates, and the third stage is identified as the industrialstage, wherein there is a decrease in both birth rate and death rate of asociety. In his theory, Notestein positsthat societal development is related with population growth, and identifiesthree stages of demographic transition in societies. Notesteindistinguishes differences in development among societies through thedemographic transition stages the society is currently categorized. The first stage,called the pre-industrial stage, is characterized by high birth rate anddeath rate. Almost two centuries after Malthus' revolutionary proposal on therelation between society and population, Frank Notestein conceived hisTheory of Demographic Transition in 1945.


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