The upcoming presidential election has provided ample evidence of how
politics affects powers in a variety of organizations, and not simply the
organizations of the nation directly related to the business of governance.
If political power solely determined what occurred behind the closed doors
of governing institutions, than the leaders of world corporate
organizations would care little whom was at the nation's helm.
However, to take only one recent example, the power of the Food and
Drug Administration to create a series of recommended daily allowances of
what Americans should eat, to determine what products should contain
warning labels as hazardous to one's health, and to select what foods to
suggest and subsidize as part of federally funded nutritional programs such
as school lunches and food stamps, all affect the power of multinational
food corporations to dominate the marketplace. The FDA can even affect
consumer's daily frames of attention and reference, given the ubiquity of
food and product advertising. The FDA has banned of certain substances,
such as alcohol and cigarettes, from being targeted at children. Many in
the industry, though powerful in determining the marketing of their
specific products, fear pressure for the government to prohibit advertising
in the future, against soft drinks and sugary cereals during children's
programming, as well as to vending machines behind banned from school
hallways. Also, the power of schools to raise extra funds for after hours
programs can be limited by political pressure, such as the recent
controversy over giving Snapple an exclusive contract for vending machines
being used in the New York City school system.
Thus, no matter how powerful an organization may be in terms of its
marketing power, and the strength of its organizational head, it still must
combat the realities of political pressures. Even Martha Stewart was
subject to the...