Italian Fascism and German Nazism

Length: 4 Pages 955 Words

Fascism and Nazism are often conflated or seen as one and the same thing by modern commentators. However, while there are similarities between these two ideologies as they are based on similar perceptions of social reality, there are also important differences that need to be considered. In order to understand these two movements, their similarities and differences, one has to understand that both emerged as a reaction to certain social and political factors in history. Fascism arose in the early part of the Twentieth Century in Europe. (Fascism and its Political Ideas) The rise of this ideology was in essence a reaction to many events and changes in Europe at the time – which included the rise of socialism and communism. “It was a response to the rapid social upheaval, the devastation of World War I, and the Bolshevik Revolution.”(Fascism and its Political Ideas) These were also factors that were instrumental in the rise of German National Socialism or Nazism in Germany. Therefore, in the first instance, both Italian Fascism and German Nazi ideology had similar roots in a response to forces and events in history. Fascism is essentially a system of thought or ideology that believes in a dictatorial way of gov Continue...

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On the other hand, in Mussolini's Italy, the type of fascism that developed was initially determined by the emphasis on loyalty and veneration of the state. A general description of fascism serves to clarify these similarities clear. (Fascism, Holocaust and the Second World War) Furthermore, "Counter-fascist forces were stronger than in Germany. "Fascism is a system of government marked by centralization of authority under a dictator, stringent socioeconomic controls, suppression of the opposition through terror and censorship, and typically a policy of belligerent nationalism and racism. Italian fascism was more concerned with national identity. The reason for this lies in the particular nature of German emphasis on generic and racial identity, whereas the Italian form of fascism was more focused on state institutions and their political integration under a single leader. (The Origins of the Bush Regime in Hitler's Third Reich) There are a number of other differences that illustrate the divide between Italian fascism and the German Nazi ideology. Furthermore, "Nazism also provided for extreme nationalism which called for the unification of all German-speaking peoples into a single empire. Both of these ideologies are also very authoritarian and militaristic. ernance and an integration of all the institutions in society under a central ideological head. intense Nationalism, productivism, anti-socialism, elitism, and the need for a strong leader. The culture the national identity is perceived as being the most important aspect of society, transcending all individual freedom and expression in both Fascism and Nazism. (Nazi Fascism and the Modern Totalitarian State) An important difference between these two ideologies is their attitude to the concept of individualism. Their ideology was intended to further the domination of a master race over the rest of the world.


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