The enlightment era,karl marx and auguste comte

Length: 5 Pages 1241 Words

The Enlightenment in mid- eighteenth century France provided an historical and social context text for the emergence of classical sociological theory. The Enlightenment n emphasized individual’s possessions of critical reason and was opposed to traditional authority in society and religion. During this time, Philosophers, also known as thinkers argued and opposed authority in the government, religion, and knowledge. Reason and knowledge were two ideas that were hard to grasp in those days. Everyone had different viewpoints, but the problem of reasoning was that no one knew what or who to believe. Through the process philosophers came up with the term “individualism.” They felt that all individuals gained knowledge, which was seen as an independent production of individual reason, practice, or action. The church and state help power over all of the people, making decisions for their everyday lives- including political, social, moral, economic, and material issues. Since the church and states held power, everyone was arranged in a hierarchy from highest to lowest. God was the highest and rocks were the lowest. The people were divided from nobility and clergy to serfs and peasants. Drawing on the program of liberal individu Continue...

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This phase combined all sciences together including: physics, chemistry, biology, and so forth. Karl Marx's work on the organization of human labor drew upon the empirical realities from preclass systems, to feudal societies, then capitalist societies. There is no such thing as a commodity unless they get exchanged. The positive stage or philosophy replaced Catholicism. For the "modes of production, he divided it into two classes. owner worked together in different points of time. The third "mode of production is known as the feudal mode. In this mode, the basic relationship is between the slave and the master. Slave's responsibility dealt with household productions mainly in specific areas such as Greece, Rome, or Egypt. There was a class of non producing owners and non- owning producers. Slaves were bound to the master and could be disposed at any time. The second step was experimentation, which is also known as the controlled observation. In this theory Marx is saying that all societies have people who produce things which satisfy their wants and needs. This mode arrived during the medieval European society. There were four types of "modes of production introduced to show how work can be seen as a commodity and the comparison of worker vs.