The Ottoman, Mughal, and Safavid Empires were all very powerful empires for several centuries, but all of them declined and broke apart. But what led to this outcome? All three empires had their unique troubles, but some of the causes were similar.
From the 17th through the 19th century, the Ottomans were at constant wars with Russia and Europe. The continuous warfare took its toll on its resources. There was also enormous corruption among Ottoman state officials. They forced the peasantry to pay unfair taxes, which led to serious peasant revolts. Succession was also a problem; in order to avoid civil war Sultans often killed or imprisoned their brothers. When the Portuguese reached Asia by a water route, they were able to con
After that, the Ottomans slowly declined and no longer held major power. The Empire failed to keep up with European technology, and often underestimated the Europeans, which led to its defeat at the Battle of Lepanto. The Mughals had one last moment of glory with the reign of Aurangzeb, who extended Mughal control to Afghanistan. The Mughal army became technologically inferior. Finally the Afghans invaded Persia in 1722, and by 1736, the Safavid dynasty was finished. One important factor in the fall of all three dynasties was the lack of an efficient method of succession, which led to fights over the throne and civil wars. trol the trade routes, seriously undermining the revenue of the Ottoman Turks. Their constant warfare with each other, as well as their bad state management, weakened and left them open to invasion. The Safavids fought exhausting wars on the East with the Mughals and on the West with the Ottomans. European merchants took away a great deal of trade and revenue from the Islamic dynasties, which were so scornful of the Europeans that they resorted to underestimating them. Soon, the Mughals were beset by peasant uprisings and revolts of both Muslim and Hindu princes. However when he died in 1707, the treasury had been emptied. After he died, his weak grandson took over and the dynasty steadily went into decline.