Mannerist in North and Renaissance Music
In the visual arts the sixteenth century saw the spread of Italian Renaissance ideas northward. In some cases they were carried by Italian artists like Benvenuto Cellini, who went to work in France. Cellini was Goldsmith to Francis I of France from 1537 to 1545. He completed here his first sculpture, the Salt Cellar. He imparted the monumentality of sculpture to a goldsmith's design. The two langorous somatic types reflect the plethora of stucco work (polished like marble to imitate Roman techniques) produced by Rosso Fiorentino and Francesco Primaticcio at Fontainebleau. The style of the School of Fontainebleau and Italian Maniera is characterized by an elongation and abstraction of the poised rather than moving body, creating an unnatural elegance and sophistication. The cellar's iconography reads like a programme for sculpture. The goddess of earth, holding her breast and a cornucopia to signify her nutritive powers, is flanked by a miniature Ionic temple for pepper corns. The god of the sea (Neptune), with trident and shell chariot, is flanked by a boat for salt. The elaborate ebony base is decorated with cartouches of reclining figures. They represent the four times of day alternating with four winds of seasons. Practical yet
From 1555 to 1560 he was choirmaster of the Cathedral of St. Martin Luther who lived from 1483-1546, led the Protestant Reformation. He brought the multiple-choir technique to its highest development, and he was most important in the development of the concerto style, i. The two leading Netherlandish artists of the century, Hieronymus Bosch and Pieter Bruegel the Elder, were also influenced by contemporary religious ideas. Best known is his Missa Papae Marcelli. Giovanni was for a time a singer in the court choir under Lasso in Munich and became (1585) second organist at St. But not all his contemporaries showed the same interest in Italian styles. Palestrina's first book of masses appeared in 1554, dedicated to the pope. Mark's Cathedral, Venice, where, in 1566, he became organist at the second organ. John Lateran, for which he wrote his Lamentations, and from 1561 to 1566 he was choirmaster of Saint Mary Major. He was in Milan from 1459 to 1479, and he sang in the papal choir intermittently from 1486 to 1494. Music, on the other hand, was central to Reformation practice: Luther himself was a hymn writer of note.
Some topics in this essay:
Italian Maniera, St Marks, Desprez Flemish, Bruegel Elder, Matthias Grunewalds, Albrecht Durer, Salt Cellar, Pierluigi Palestrina, Church Conde, Cathedral Venice, julian chapel, multiple-choir technique, madrigals motets, chapel choir, st marks, julian chapel choir,
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