The biosphere is part of the earth in which life exists. It is 20 km thick from the bottom of the ocean to the lower atmosphere. It consists of three layers: the lithosphere, which is the land on the surface of the earth; the hydrosphere, which comprises of the water on the earth as well as water vapor in the air; and the atmosphere, which is made up of the air that surrounds the earth. The living organisms in the biosphere interact and affect each other in many ways. This is called a biotic factor. Similarly, there are non-living elements that have an effect on living organisms, these are considered abiotic factors. Examples of abiotic factors are air, temperature, water, soil, light, and minerals.
In a biosphere, organisms live in special groupings. For instance, a population consists of all individuals of a species living in a general area. A community is a population located i
The earth's aquatic ecosystem makes up about 75 of the earth's surface. Ecosystems can be aquatic or terrestrial. For example, ecological succession brings about the replacement of one community by another in an ecosystem. The burning of fossil fuels contributes to the industrial cycle of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. These compounds are important because they make up DNA and other compounds crucial to the formation and sustenance of life. In the ecosystem, matter and nutrients are cycled via biogeochemical cycles such as water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and phosphorous. In this case, organisms may have the same habitat, but different niches. n a certain area living among different species. In other instances, organisms that colonize an area with no community present are considered pioneer organisms. An ecosystem is yet a larger conglomeration of a population, a community, and abiotic factors. Mutualism is a relationship where both organisms benefit from their interaction with each other. Commensalism only benefits one organism, but the other organism is not affected. They are mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism. An example is the honey bee and a flowering plant.