When someone says they are depressed they generally refer to a sour mood which may be changed quickly with a call from a friend or a gift or by simply seeing a good movie. But clinical depression is something quite a bit more profound. Similarly, some people may find themselves nervous before a test or anxious about a romantic situation. But that is different from an anxiety disorder where repetitive behavior ensues whenever a particular situation is encountered. While it is not always easy to tell the difference between serious disorders involving anxiety or depression and the usual fare, it is also easy to confuse these diagnoses with one another. The confusion in terms of recognition is true not only for the layman but for the professional as well. Presently, the most authoritative reference for diagnostic guidelines in psychiatry is the manual put out by the American Psychiatric Association's (1994) and commonly referred to as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) (Dreary, Peter, Austin & Gibson, 1998). Conditions such as schizophrenia, depression and anxiety disorders are diagnosed on Axis I of the five axes used in the manual (1998). Personality disorders are however diagnosed on Axis II and the implicati
(1994) drew attention to some of the limitations of their study. With respect to explanatory value, as assessed through the percentage of variance in depression explained, the cho!ice between the models is easier to make. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 5, 39-44. Because the DSM-IV focuses on clinical syndromes, children who seem to exhibit depressive-like conditions may not meet the DSM-IV criteria for diagnosis (1996). , in which shyness affects, in varying degrees, both attributional style and depression. Society and the adolescent self-image. The structure of personal characteristics. Causal attributions of shy subjects.
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