Length: 4 Pages 938 Words

MITOCHONDRIAL DISEASES The mitochondrion is the energy manufacturer of the cell. It is equivalent to the engine of a car. These tiny biological machines combine the food we eat with oxygen to produce energy to keep our bodies going. The energy produced by the mitochondria is stored in the form of a chemical called Adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The mitochondria is involved in making of steroid hormones and DNA. Each cell in the body contains an average of five hundred, to two thousand mitochondria. When they are dysfunctional, the body can develop “energy crisis” in the muscles, tissues, brain and the heart. Examples of the mitochondria diseases include: 1) AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS: Autoimmune hepatitis is a type of chronic active hepatitis. It is caused by cellular immune reactions. A variety of circulating autoantibodies can be found in the blood og patients with chronic active hepatitis. Other autoimmune diseases are thyroiditis diabetes mellitus and ulcerative colitis. Its complications are liver cell failure, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and it is a disease rare in children. SYMTOMS: The symptoms for autoimmune hepatitis include dark urine, loss of appetite, fatigue, abdominal distention, and gen Continue...

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SIGNS AND TESTS: Liver biopsy shows chronic active hepatitis. While later symptoms include tremor or trembling in hands, arms, legs, jaw and face; rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and trunk; bradykinesia and impaired balance and coordination. 4) ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE: Alzheimer's disease is a late life illness that causes a form of brain failure. It is the most common form of parkinsonism, the name for a group disorders with similar features. It cannot be cured, but it can be treated. SYMTOMS: A patient with Alzheimer's disease usually undergoes some symptoms which include memory loss; problems with language, disorientation, loss of initiative and changes in mood and behavior. Acute acidosis is treated to restore normal pH. The disease is so named because urine from affected people smells like maple syrup. SYMPTOMS: Symptoms for MSUD include urine, which smells like maple syrup. TREATMENT: Treatment of Parkinson disease is by medication such as levodopa (brand name: Larodopa) and carbidopa (brand name: Sinemet); a surgically implanted device that helps control the shaking has recently become available. 5) MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE (MSUD): Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is caused by the inability to metabolize the amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine. It belongs to a group of conditions called motor system disorders. Activity should be modified according to the symptoms. TREATMENT: According to medical research, brain surgery has been considered to be the most effective form of treatment to control those patients with epilepsy.


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