Anthropology:four major strategies for getting food

Length: 3 Pages 711 Words

Chapter 5 in the textbook focuses on the four major strategies for getting food: foraging, horticulture, pastoralism, and agriculture. Each of these four strategies possesses important characteristics. These strategies have also affected other aspects of human societies such as technology, settlement patterns, family life and religion. In the following essay I will be writing in depth about the four major strategies. The first strategy I will focus on is foraging. Foraging is sometimes called “hunting and gathering.” Foraging involves the collection of wild plants and hunting animals for food. Men were usually assigned the role of hunting, while women were sent out to collect things like berries, nuts, seeds, flowers, and fruit. Technology plays an important part in foraging as well. Before certain wild plants are eaten, lab tests are done to make sure the food is safe. Most foragers are nomads. They move with the availability of food and water. Foragers are not food producers so they do not contribute to any economic system Continue...

They must know a lot about their environment in order to know when and where to move their herds to fresh land. Horticulturalists need to work with their environment and use it as much as they can to their advantage. They also must know how to use all of the farming machinery and how to repair it. Because farmers need markets and have many different machines, they live a sedentary lifestyle not a nomadic one. They do however live by a system of reciprocity. Foragers can get everything they need from one another. Like foragers reciprocity is also practiced among horticulturalists. Therefore horticulture must take place in areas where there is a great amount of rainfall. Unlike foragers, who are nomadic, horticulturalists stay in one place for a long amount of time. Our strategies for food production have definitely progressed over the years. Pastoralists use animals such as cattle, sheep and goats. Technology plays a major roll in agricultural production. Technology is important to pastoralists. a Foragers also share responsibilities and have excellent survival skills. They also must learn how to successfully reproduce and maintain their animals.