Jean Piaget is a Swiss psychologist. He is one of the most influential figures in the history of psychology. When he was in Paris, Piaget studied newborns through adolescences. He came up with many interesting findings and facts about cognitive development. Piaget studied his own children whom many people found controversial but he found accurate findings. .
Piaget thought that from birth to the age of two, the child is a sensory being, and information is absorbed through sensory and motor activities. Piaget called this stage Sensori-motor. Piaget further broke this stage down into six sub-stages. The first sub-stage (birth-1 month), month one, the child does not show any real learning, simply adaptation, and its primary concern is refining its reflexes.
In the following sub-stage (1-4 months), the child refines its circular reactions, where they learn from repetition involving their own body. For example, if an infant’s hand comes in contact with its own foot, it might repeat the same movement over and over again. Piaget called this primary circular reaction. Also, if an object leaves the child’s visual field, his gaze will remain fixed on the spot where it disappeared because he is expecting it to return. If the object fails to appear, the baby will focus his attention on other visible objects. Piaget calls this behavior passive expectation.
The third sub-stage (4-10 months) involves secondary circular reactions, where they enjoy repetition-involving manipulation of their environment. At this point in their development, they understand that they are the ones causing the change in their surroundings. The child begins to reach for things, they grab things and bring them closer to the eyes and mouth. In this stage object permanence appears. For example, if an object is halfway hidden, the child will search for the whole item.
During sub-stage four (10-12 months); children have learned that objects contin...