In this report, I have chosen the area of DNA profiling as my biotechnology assignment.
Firstly I will describe the structure of DNA, how it works and the process of manipulation it takes. There are many areas where DNA is being manipulated for different purposes to enhance human development, genetic disorders, saving endangered species, DNA profiling.
The DNA molecule is a double helix, resembling a spiral ladder. The sides of the ladder are made up by alternating units of phosphate and a sugar, deoxyribose. Attached to the sugar units are the rungs of the ladder, which are made up of combinations of bases. There are four bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine (A, G, C, T). Each rung in the ladder consists of two bases. Because of chemical attractions, only a few combinations of bases are possible: A combines with T and C combines with G.
The information contained in DNA is determined primarily by the sequence of letters along the ladder. Living organisms that look different or that have different characteristics also have different DNA sequences.
Like the fingerprints each person has a unique DNA fingerprint. Unlike the fingertips that can be altered by surgery, a DNA fingerprint is the same for every cell tissue an organ for a person. It can not be altered by any known treatment. Consequently, DNA fingerprinting is rapidly becoming the primary method for identifying and distinguishing among individual human beings.
DNA fingerprints are useful in several applications of human health care research - diagnosing inherited disorders and preventing them; such as cystic fibroses, hemophilia, Huntington’s disease, familial Alzheimer’s, sickle cell anemia and many others.
DNA fingerprinting is the laboratory procedure that requires 6 steps:
DNA must be recovered from the cells or tissues of the body. Only a small amount of tissue – like blood, hair, or skin – is needed. For exampl