Why War Happens

             Most wars result from a combination of causes. Three of the most common causes
             are conflicts over resources, clashing ideologies, and struggles over power.
             Conflicts over resources are the most basic and enduring causes of war. Resources
             include land, minerals, energy sources, and important geographical features. The world's
             first wars probably were fought over resources. Location and geography can provide great
             benefits to one community and not to another. Examples of conflicts over resources are
             numerous. In the Crimean War (1853-1856), the United Kingdom, France, and the
             Ottoman Empire fought against Russia for control of the area around the Black Sea. The
             Persian Gulf War (1991) resulted in large part from Iraq's attempt to seize control of
             Clashing ideologies can also lead to war. Ideologies are sets of ideas that define different
             communities. Religious teachings are often central to a society's ideology. Sometimes,
             these teachings are different from-or even openly hostile toward-those of neighboring
             communities. In these cases, religious wars can erupt. From 1096 to the late 1200's, for
             example, Christians from Europe waged war on Muslim rulers in Palestine as part of the
             series of military expeditions known as the Crusades.
             Ideological conflicts can also involve political concepts. An example of such a conflict was
             the Cold War between Communist and non-Communist nations in the latter half of the
             1900's. The conflict between capitalist democracy and Communism fueled the tensions
             between the United States and the Soviet Union
             Struggles over power. Power involves the ability to control other people or to control the
             outcome of a situation. War often results when one country seeks to expand its power at
             the expense of others. In some cases, a decline in the strength of a powerful nation may
             prompt a war of opportunity, in which rival nations try to take adva

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